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Thema: .hex Datei erstellen und Übertragung zum AtMega32 per ISP

  1. #1
    Erfahrener Benutzer Fleißiges Mitglied
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    17.06.2007
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    .hex Datei erstellen und Übertragung zum AtMega32 per ISP

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    Hi,
    ich habe WinAVR in C:\winavr installiert und habe in C:\Robot ein makefile und eine .c Datei.

    makefile:
    Code:
    # Hey Emacs, this is a -*- makefile -*-
    #
    # WinAVR makefile written by Eric B. Weddington, Jörg Wunsch, et al.
    # Released to the Public Domain
    # Please read the make user manual!
    #
    # Additional material for this makefile was submitted by:
    #  Tim Henigan
    #  Peter Fleury
    #  Reiner Patommel
    #  Sander Pool
    #  Frederik Rouleau
    #  Markus Pfaff
    #
    # On command line:
    #
    # make all = Make software.
    #
    # make clean = Clean out built project files.
    #
    # make coff = Convert ELF to AVR COFF (for use with AVR Studio 3.x or VMLAB).
    #
    # make extcoff = Convert ELF to AVR Extended COFF (for use with AVR Studio
    #                4.07 or greater).
    #
    # make program = Download the hex file to the device, using avrdude.  Please
    #                customize the avrdude settings below first!
    #
    # make filename.s = Just compile filename.c into the assembler code only
    #
    # To rebuild project do "make clean" then "make all".
    #
    
    # mth 2004/09 
    # Differences from WinAVR 20040720 sample:
    # - DEPFLAGS according to Eric Weddingtion's fix (avrfreaks/gcc-forum)
    # - F_OSC Define in CFLAGS and AFLAGS
    
    
    # MCU name
    MCU = atmega32
    
    # Main Oscillator Frequency
    # This is only used to define F_OSC in all assembler and c-sources.
    F_OSC = 3686400
    
    # Output format. (can be srec, ihex, binary)
    FORMAT = ihex
    
    # Target file name (without extension).
    TARGET = main
    
    
    # List C source files here. (C dependencies are automatically generated.)
    SRC = $(TARGET).c
    
    
    # List Assembler source files here.
    # Make them always end in a capital .S.  Files ending in a lowercase .s
    # will not be considered source files but generated files (assembler
    # output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make clean"!
    # Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the same,
    # it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and GCC itself does
    # care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.
    ASRC = 
    
    
    
    # Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s]. 
    # 0 = turn off optimization. s = optimize for size.
    # (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc FAQ.)
    OPT = s
    
    # Debugging format.
    # Native formats for AVR-GCC's -g are stabs [default], or dwarf-2.
    # AVR (extended) COFF requires stabs, plus an avr-objcopy run.
    #DEBUG = stabs
    DEBUG = dwarf-2
    
    # List any extra directories to look for include files here.
    #     Each directory must be seperated by a space.
    EXTRAINCDIRS = 
    
    
    # Compiler flag to set the C Standard level.
    # c89   - "ANSI" C
    # gnu89 - c89 plus GCC extensions
    # c99   - ISO C99 standard (not yet fully implemented)
    # gnu99 - c99 plus GCC extensions
    CSTANDARD = -std=gnu99
    
    # Place -D or -U options here
    CDEFS =
    
    # Place -I options here
    CINCS =
    
    
    # Compiler flags.
    #  -g*:          generate debugging information
    #  -O*:          optimization level
    #  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
    #  -Wall...:     warning level
    #  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
    #    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
    CFLAGS = -g$(DEBUG)
    CFLAGS += $(CDEFS) $(CINCS)
    CFLAGS += -O$(OPT)
    CFLAGS += -funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -fpack-struct -fshort-enums
    CFLAGS += -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes
    CFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.c=.lst)
    CFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
    CFLAGS += $(CSTANDARD)
    CFLAGS += -DF_OSC=$(F_OSC)
    
    
    
    # Assembler flags.
    #  -Wa,...:   tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
    #  -ahlms:    create listing
    #  -gstabs:   have the assembler create line number information; note that
    #             for use in COFF files, additional information about filenames
    #             and function names needs to be present in the assembler source
    #             files -- see avr-libc docs [FIXME: not yet described there]
    ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),-gstabs 
    ASFLAGS += -DF_OSC=$(F_OSC)
    
    
    #Additional libraries.
    
    # Minimalistic printf version
    PRINTF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min
    
    # Floating point printf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
    PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt
    
    PRINTF_LIB = 
    
    # Minimalistic scanf version
    SCANF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_min
    
    # Floating point + %[ scanf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
    SCANF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_flt
    
    SCANF_LIB = 
    
    MATH_LIB = -lm
    
    # External memory options
    
    # 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
    # used for variables (.data/.bss) and heap (malloc()).
    #EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,-Tdata=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff
    
    # 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
    # only used for heap (malloc()).
    #EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,--defsym=__heap_start=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff
    
    EXTMEMOPTS =
    
    # Linker flags.
    #  -Wl,...:     tell GCC to pass this to linker.
    #    -Map:      create map file
    #    --cref:    add cross reference to  map file
    LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
    LDFLAGS += $(EXTMEMOPTS)
    LDFLAGS += $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)
    
    
    
    
    # Programming support using avrdude. Settings and variables.
    
    # Programming hardware: alf AVR910 avrisp Bascom bsd 
    # dt006 pavr picoweb pony-stk200 sp12 stk200 stk500
    #
    # Type: avrdude -c ?
    # to get a full listing.
    #
    AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = stk500
    
    # com1 = serial port. Use lpt1 to connect to parallel port.
    AVRDUDE_PORT = com1    # Programmer connected to serial device
    
    AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U flash:w:$(TARGET).hex
    #AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM = -U eeprom:w:$(TARGET).eep
    
    
    # Uncomment the following if you want avrdude's erase cycle counter.
    # Note that this counter needs to be initialized first using -Yn,
    # see avrdude manual.
    #AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER = -y
    
    # Uncomment the following if you do /not/ wish a verification to be
    # performed after programming the device.
    #AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY = -V
    
    # Increase verbosity level.  Please use this when submitting bug
    # reports about avrdude. See <http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avrdude> 
    # to submit bug reports.
    #AVRDUDE_VERBOSE = -v -v
    
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS = -p $(MCU) -P $(AVRDUDE_PORT) -c $(AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER)
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY)
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_VERBOSE)
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER)
    
    
    
    # ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    # Define directories, if needed.
    DIRAVR = c:/winavr
    DIRAVRBIN = $(DIRAVR)/bin
    DIRAVRUTILS = $(DIRAVR)/utils/bin
    DIRINC = .
    DIRLIB = $(DIRAVR)/avr/lib
    
    
    # Define programs and commands.
    SHELL = sh
    CC = avr-gcc
    OBJCOPY = avr-objcopy
    OBJDUMP = avr-objdump
    SIZE = avr-size
    NM = avr-nm
    AVRDUDE = avrdude
    REMOVE = rm -f
    COPY = cp
    
    
    
    
    # Define Messages
    # English
    MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
    MSG_BEGIN = -------- begin --------
    MSG_END = --------  end  --------
    MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before: 
    MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
    MSG_COFF = Converting to AVR COFF:
    MSG_EXTENDED_COFF = Converting to AVR Extended COFF:
    MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
    MSG_EEPROM = Creating load file for EEPROM:
    MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
    MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
    MSG_LINKING = Linking:
    MSG_COMPILING = Compiling:
    MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
    MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:
    
    
    
    
    # Define all object files.
    OBJ = $(SRC:.c=.o) $(ASRC:.S=.o) 
    
    # Define all listing files.
    LST = $(ASRC:.S=.lst) $(SRC:.c=.lst)
    
    
    # Compiler flags to generate dependency files.
    ### GENDEPFLAGS = -Wp,-M,-MP,-MT,$(*F).o,-MF,.dep/$(@F).d
    GENDEPFLAGS = -MD -MP -MF .dep/$(@F).d
    
    # Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
    # Add target processor to flags.
    ALL_CFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) $(GENDEPFLAGS)
    ALL_ASFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp $(ASFLAGS)
    
    
    
    
    
    # Default target.
    all: begin gccversion sizebefore build sizeafter finished end
    
    build: elf hex eep lss sym
    
    elf: $(TARGET).elf
    hex: $(TARGET).hex
    eep: $(TARGET).eep
    lss: $(TARGET).lss 
    sym: $(TARGET).sym
    
    
    
    # Eye candy.
    # AVR Studio 3.x does not check make's exit code but relies on
    # the following magic strings to be generated by the compile job.
    begin:
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_BEGIN)
    
    finished:
    	@echo $(MSG_ERRORS_NONE)
    
    end:
    	@echo $(MSG_END)
    	@echo
    
    
    # Display size of file.
    HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex
    ELFSIZE = $(SIZE) -A $(TARGET).elf
    sizebefore:
    	@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi
    
    sizeafter:
    	@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi
    
    
    
    # Display compiler version information.
    gccversion : 
    	@$(CC) --version
    
    
    
    # Program the device.  
    program: $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep
    	$(AVRDUDE) $(AVRDUDE_FLAGS) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM)
    
    
    
    
    # Convert ELF to COFF for use in debugging / simulating in AVR Studio or VMLAB.
    COFFCONVERT=$(OBJCOPY) --debugging \
    --change-section-address .data-0x800000 \
    --change-section-address .bss-0x800000 \
    --change-section-address .noinit-0x800000 \
    --change-section-address .eeprom-0x810000 
    
    
    coff: $(TARGET).elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
    	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-avr $< $(TARGET).cof
    
    
    extcoff: $(TARGET).elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
    	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-ext-avr $< $(TARGET).cof
    
    
    
    # Create final output files (.hex, .eep) from ELF output file.
    %.hex: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
    	$(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) -R .eeprom $< $@
    
    %.eep: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_EEPROM) $@
    	-$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" \
    	--change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O $(FORMAT) $< $@
    
    # Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
    %.lss: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING) $@
    	$(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > $@
    
    # Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
    %.sym: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
    	$(NM) -n $< > $@
    
    
    
    # Link: create ELF output file from object files.
    .SECONDARY : $(TARGET).elf
    .PRECIOUS : $(OBJ)
    %.elf: $(OBJ)
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
    	$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(OBJ) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)
    
    
    # Compile: create object files from C source files.
    %.o : %.c
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
    	$(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@ 
    
    
    # Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
    %.s : %.c
    	$(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@
    
    
    # Assemble: create object files from assembler source files.
    %.o : %.S
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
    	$(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@
    
    
    
    # Target: clean project.
    clean: begin clean_list finished end
    
    clean_list :
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).eep
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).cof
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).a90
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lnk
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
    	$(REMOVE) $(OBJ)
    	$(REMOVE) $(LST)
    	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
    	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
    	$(REMOVE) .dep/*
    
    
    
    # Include the dependency files.
    -include $(shell mkdir .dep 2>/dev/null) $(wildcard .dep/*)
    
    
    # Listing of phony targets.
    .PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion \
    build elf hex eep lss sym coff extcoff \
    clean clean_list program
    Das makefile stammt von http://www.mikrocontroller.net/artic...spiel_Makefile und es wurde nur der Name des Controllers angepasst.


    .c-Datei (main.c):
    Code:
    #include <avr/io.h>
    #include <avr/interrupt.h>
    
    // Für alte avr-gcc Versionen
    #ifndef SIGNAL
    #include <avr/signal.h>
    #endif // SIGNAL
    
    // Geblinkt wird PortB.1 (push-pull)
    // Eine LED in Reihe mit einem Vorwiderstand zwischen
    // PortB.1 und GND anschliessen.
    #define PAD_LED  1
    #define PORT_LED PORTB
    #define DDR_LED  DDRB
    
    // Der MCU-Takt. Wird gebraucht, um Timer1 mit den richtigen
    // Werten zu initialisieren. Voreinstellung ist 1MHz.
    // (Werkseinstellung für AVRs mit internem Oszillator).
    // Das Define wird nur gemacht, wenn F_CPU noch nicht definiert wurde.
    // F_CPU kann man so auch per Kommandozeile definieren, z.B. für 8MHz:
    // avr-gcc ... -DF_CPU=8000000
    //   
    // ! Der Wert von F_CPU hat rein informativen Character für
    // ! die korrekte Codeerzeugung im Programm!
    // ! Um die Taktrate zu ändern müssen die Fuses des Controllers
    // ! und/oder Quarz/Resonator/RC-Glied/Oszillator
    // ! angepasst werden!
    #ifndef F_CPU
    #define F_CPU    1000000
    #endif
    
    // So viele IRQs werden jede Sekunde ausgelöst.
    // Für optimale Genauigkeit muss
    // IRQS_PER_SECOND ein Teiler von F_CPU sein
    // und IRQS_PER_SECOND ein Vielfaches von 100.
    // Ausserdem muss gelten F_CPU / IRQS_PER_SECOND <= 65536
    #define IRQS_PER_SECOND   2000 /* 500 µs */
    
    // Anzahl IRQs pro 10 Millisekunden
    #define IRQS_PER_10MS     (IRQS_PER_SECOND / 100)
    
    // Gültigkeitsprüfung.
    // Bei ungeeigneten Werten gibt es einen Compilerfehler
    #if (F_CPU/IRQS_PER_SECOND > 65536) || (IRQS_PER_10MS < 1) || (IRQS_PER_10MS > 255)
    #   error Diese Werte fuer F_CPU und IRQS_PER_SECOND
    #   error sind ausserhalb des gueltigen Bereichs!
    #endif
    
    // Compiler-Warnung falls die Genauigkeit nicht optimal ist.
    // Wenn das nervt für deine Werte, einfach löschen :-)
    #if (F_CPU % IRQS_PER_SECOND != 0) || (IRQS_PER_SECOND % 100 != 0)
    #   warning Das Programm arbeitet nicht mit optimaler Genauigkeit.
    #endif
    
    // Prototypen
    void wait_10ms (const uint8_t);
    void timer1_init();
    
    // Zähler-Variable. Wird in der ISR erniedrigt und in wait_10ms benutzt.
    static volatile uint8_t timer_10ms;
    
    // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    // Implementierungen der Funktionen
    // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    
    #if !defined (TCNT1H)
    #error Dieser Controller hat keinen 16-Bit Timer1!
    #endif // TCNT1H
    
    // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    // Timer1 so initialisieren, daß er IRQS_PER_SECOND 
    // IRQs pro Sekunde erzeugt.
    void timer1_init()
    {
        // Timer1: keine PWM
        TCCR1A = 0;
    
        // Timer1 ist Zähler: Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC, Mode #4)
        // Timer1 läuft mit vollem MCU-Takt: Prescale = 1
    #if defined (CTC1) && !defined (WGM12)
       TCCR1B = (1 << CTC1)  | (1 << CS10);
    #elif !defined (CTC1) && defined (WGM12)
       TCCR1B = (1 << WGM12) | (1 << CS10);
    #else
    #error Keine Ahnung, wie Timer1 fuer diesen AVR zu initialisieren ist!
    #endif
    
        // OutputCompare für gewünschte Timer1 Frequenz
        // TCNT1 zählt immer 0...OCR1A, 0...OCR1A, ... 
        // Beim überlauf OCR1A -> OCR1A+1 wird TCNT1=0 gesetzt und im nächsten
        // MCU-Takt eine IRQ erzeugt.
        OCR1A = (unsigned short) ((unsigned long) F_CPU / IRQS_PER_SECOND-1);
    
        // OutputCompareA-Interrupt für Timer1 aktivieren
    #if defined (TIMSK1)
        TIMSK1 |= (1 << OCIE1A);
    #elif defined (TIMSK)
        TIMSK  |= (1 << OCIE1A);
    #else	 
    #error Keine Ahnung, wie IRQs fuer diesen AVR zu initialisieren sind!
    #endif
    }
    
    // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    // Wartet etwa t*10 ms. 
    // timer_10ms wird alle 10ms in der Timer1-ISR erniedrigt. 
    // Weil es bis zum nächsten IRQ nicht länger als 10ms dauert,
    // wartet diese Funktion zwischen (t-1)*10 ms und t*10 ms.
    void wait_10ms (const uint8_t t)
    {
        timer_10ms = t;
        while (timer_10ms);
    }
    
    // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    // Die Interrupt Service Routine (ISR).
    // In interrupt_num_10ms werden die IRQs gezählt.
    // Sind IRQS_PER_10MS Interrups geschehen, 
    // dann sind 10 ms vergangen.
    // timer_10ms wird alle 10 ms um 1 vermindert und bleibt bei 0 stehen.
    SIGNAL (SIG_OUTPUT_COMPARE1A)
    {
        static uint8_t interrupt_num_10ms;
    
        // interrupt_num_10ms erhöhen und mit Maximalwert vergleichen
        if (++interrupt_num_10ms == IRQS_PER_10MS)
        {
            // 10 Millisekunden sind vorbei
            // interrupt_num_10ms zurücksetzen
            interrupt_num_10ms = 0;
    
            // Alle 10ms wird timer_10ms erniedrigt, falls es nicht schon 0 ist.
            // Wird verwendet in wait_10ms
            if (timer_10ms != 0)
                timer_10ms--;
        }
    }
    
    // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    // Das Hauptprogramm: Startpunkt 
    int main()
    {
        // LED-Port auf OUT
        DDR_LED  |= (1 << PAD_LED);
    
        // Timer1 initialisieren
        timer1_init();
    
        // Interrupts aktivieren
        sei();
    
        // Endlosschleife
        // Die LED ist jeweils 1 Sekunde an und 1 Sekunde aus,
        // blinkt also mit einer Frequenz von 0.5 Hz
        while (1)
        {
            // LED an
            PORT_LED |= (1 << PAD_LED);
    
            // 1 Sekunde warten
            wait_10ms (100);
    
            // LED aus
            PORT_LED &= ~(1 << PAD_LED);
    
            // 1 Sekunde warten
            wait_10ms (100);
        }
    
        // main braucht keine return-Anweisung, weil wir nie hier hin kommen
    	}


    Wenn ich jetzt in dem Verzeichnis "make all" ausführe erhalte ich in der Konsole die folgenden Fehler:





    Ich möchte das .c File in eine .hex Datei umwandeln um diese dann per selbstgebautem ISP-Dongle mit Ponyprog 2000 zum AtMega32 zu übertragen, aber ich erhalte nach dem Ausführen von "make all" immer diese Fehler.
    Es entsteht dann immer nur ein Ordner, der ".dep" heißt und in dem sich eine Datei namens "main.o.d" befindet.


    Es wäre super, wenn ihr mir sagen könntet, wo mein Fehler liegt.

    Vielen Dank
    jawo3

  2. #2
    Erfahrener Benutzer Fleißiges Mitglied
    Registriert seit
    17.06.2007
    Ort
    zwischen Hannover und Hildesheim
    Alter
    26
    Beiträge
    135
    [fade:84c69dbb6e]Jetzt geht´s. Ich habe WinAVR gerade mal neu installiert.[/fade:84c69dbb6e]

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