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Thema: Problem beim Linken mit WinAVR

  1. #1
    Gast

    Problem beim Linken mit WinAVR

    Hi!

    Ich habe den Compiler nach installiert, wie im Tutorial auf www.kreatives-chaos.com (http://www.kreatives-chaos.com/index.php?seite=avrgcc) beschrieben. Nachdem ich die Pfade des makefile (erstellt mit mfile) an meine Umgebung angepasst habe bekomme ich beim compilieren des "glcd" Exampels folgende Fehlermeldung:

    -------- begin --------
    avr-gcc (GCC) 3.3.1
    Copyright (C) 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO
    warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


    Compiling: glcdtest.c
    avr-gcc -c -mmcu=atmega16 -I. -g -Os -funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -fpack-struct -fshort-enums -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -Wa,-adhlns=glcdtest.lst -IC:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avrlib -IC:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avrlib/conf -IC:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avr/include -std=gnu99 -Wp,-M,-MP,-MT,glcdtest.o,-MF,.dep/glcdtest.o.d glcdtest.c -o glcdtest.o

    Linking: glcdtest.elf
    avr-gcc -mmcu=atmega16 -I. -g -Os -funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -fpack-struct -fshort-enums -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -Wa,-adhlns=glcdtest.o -IC:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avrlib -IC:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avrlib/conf -IC:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avr/include -std=gnu99 -Wp,-M,-MP,-MT,glcdtest.o,-MF,.dep/glcdtest.elf.d glcdtest.o --output glcdtest.elf -Wl,-Map=glcdtest.map,--cref -LC:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avr/lib C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/lib C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avrlib -lm
    C:\Entwicklungsumgebung\DevSoftware\SDKs\WinAVR\bi n\..\lib\gcc-lib\avr\3.3.1\..\..\..\..\avr\bin\ld.exe: cannot open C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/lib: Permission denied
    make: *** [glcdtest.elf] Error 1

    > Process Exit Code: 2
    Ich arbeite mit Windows XP, die entsprechenden Pfade haben allerdings eine "Jeder"-Berechtigung mit Vollzugriff und ich habe Administrator rechte...

    Das Makefile habe ich mit MFile erstellt.

    Hier ist es:
    Code:
    # Hey Emacs, this is a -*- makefile -*-
    #
    # WinAVR Sample makefile written by Eric B. Weddington, Jörg Wunsch, et al.
    # Released to the Public Domain
    # Please read the make user manual!
    #
    # Additional material for this makefile was submitted by:
    #  Tim Henigan
    #  Peter Fleury
    #  Reiner Patommel
    #  Sander Pool
    #  Frederik Rouleau
    #  Markus Pfaff
    #
    # On command line:
    #
    # make all = Make software.
    #
    # make clean = Clean out built project files.
    #
    # make coff = Convert ELF to AVR COFF (for use with AVR Studio 3.x or VMLAB).
    #
    # make extcoff = Convert ELF to AVR Extended COFF (for use with AVR Studio
    #                4.07 or greater).
    #
    # make program = Download the hex file to the device, using avrdude.  Please
    #                customize the avrdude settings below first!
    #
    # make filename.s = Just compile filename.c into the assembler code only
    #
    # To rebuild project do "make clean" then "make all".
    #
    
    
    # MCU name
    MCU = atmega16
    
    # Output format. (can be srec, ihex, binary)
    FORMAT = ihex
    
    # Target file name (without extension).
    TARGET = glcdtest
    
    
    # List C source files here. (C dependencies are automatically generated.)
    SRC = $(TARGET).c
    
    
    # List Assembler source files here.
    # Make them always end in a capital .S.  Files ending in a lowercase .s
    # will not be considered source files but generated files (assembler
    # output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make clean"!
    # Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the same,
    # it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and GCC itself does
    # care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.
    ASRC = 
    
    
    
    # Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s]. 
    # 0 = turn off optimization. s = optimize for size.
    # (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc FAQ.)
    OPT = s
    
    
    # List any extra directories to look for include files here.
    #     Each directory must be seperated by a space.
    EXTRAINCDIRS = C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avrlib C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avrlib/conf C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avr/include
    
    
    # Compiler flag to set the C Standard level.
    # c89   - "ANSI" C
    # gnu89 - c89 plus GCC extensions
    # c99   - ISO C99 standard (not yet fully implemented)
    # gnu99 - c99 plus GCC extensions
    CSTANDARD = -std=gnu99
    
    # Place -D or -U options here
    CDEFS =
    
    # Place -I options here
    CINCS =
    
    
    # Compiler flags.
    #  -g:           generate debugging information
    #  -O*:          optimization level
    #  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
    #  -Wall...:     warning level
    #  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
    #    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
    CFLAGS = -g
    CFLAGS += $(CDEFS) $(CINCS)
    CFLAGS += -O$(OPT)
    CFLAGS += -funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -fpack-struct -fshort-enums
    CFLAGS += -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes
    CFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.c=.lst)
    CFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
    CFLAGS += $(CSTANDARD)
    
    
    
    # Assembler flags.
    #  -Wa,...:   tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
    #  -ahlms:    create listing
    #  -gstabs:   have the assembler create line number information; note that
    #             for use in COFF files, additional information about filenames
    #             and function names needs to be present in the assembler source
    #             files -- see avr-libc docs [FIXME: not yet described there]
    ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),-gstabs 
    
    
    
    #Additional libraries.
    LIBDIR = C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avr/lib C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/lib C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avrlib
    
    # Minimalistic printf version
    PRINTF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min
    
    # Floating point printf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
    PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt
    
    PRINTF_LIB = 
    
    # Minimalistic scanf version
    SCANF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_min
    
    # Floating point + %[ scanf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
    SCANF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_flt
    
    SCANF_LIB = 
    
    MATH_LIB = -lm
    
    # External memory options
    
    # 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
    # used for variables (.data/.bss) and heap (malloc()).
    #EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,-Tdata=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff
    
    # 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
    # only used for heap (malloc()).
    #EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,--defsym=__heap_start=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff
    
    EXTMEMOPTS =
    
    # Linker flags.
    #  -Wl,...:     tell GCC to pass this to linker.
    #    -Map:      create map file
    #    --cref:    add cross reference to  map file
    LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref -L$(LIBDIR)
    LDFLAGS += $(EXTMEMOPTS)
    LDFLAGS += $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)
    
    
    
    
    # Programming support using avrdude. Settings and variables.
    
    # Programming hardware: alf AVR910 avrisp Bascom bsd 
    # dt006 pavr picoweb pony-stk200 sp12 stk200 stk500
    #
    # Type: avrdude -c ?
    # to get a full listing.
    #
    AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = stk500
    
    # com1 = serial port. Use lpt1 to connect to parallel port.
    AVRDUDE_PORT = com1    # Programmer connected to serial device
    
    AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U flash:w:$(TARGET).hex
    #AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM = -U eeprom:w:$(TARGET).eep
    
    
    # Uncomment the following if you want avrdude's erase cycle counter.
    # Note that this counter needs to be initialized first using -Yn,
    # see avrdude manual.
    #AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER = -y
    
    # Uncomment the following if you do /not/ wish a verification to be
    # performed after programming the device.
    #AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY = -V
    
    # Increase verbosity level.  Please use this when submitting bug
    # reports about avrdude. See <http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avrdude> 
    # to submit bug reports.
    #AVRDUDE_VERBOSE = -v -v
    
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS = -p $(MCU) -P $(AVRDUDE_PORT) -c $(AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER)
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY)
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_VERBOSE)
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER)
    
    
    
    # ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    # Define directories, if needed.
    DIRAVR = C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR
    DIRAVRBIN = $(DIRAVR)/bin
    DIRAVRUTILS = $(DIRAVR)/utils/bin
    DIRINC = .
    DIRLIB = $(DIRAVR)/avr/lib
    
    
    # Define programs and commands.
    SHELL = sh
    CC = avr-gcc
    OBJCOPY = avr-objcopy
    OBJDUMP = avr-objdump
    SIZE = avr-size
    NM = avr-nm
    AVRDUDE = avrdude
    REMOVE = rm -f
    COPY = cp
    
    
    
    
    # Define Messages
    # English
    MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
    MSG_BEGIN = -------- begin --------
    MSG_END = --------  end  --------
    MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before: 
    MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
    MSG_COFF = Converting to AVR COFF:
    MSG_EXTENDED_COFF = Converting to AVR Extended COFF:
    MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
    MSG_EEPROM = Creating load file for EEPROM:
    MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
    MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
    MSG_LINKING = Linking:
    MSG_COMPILING = Compiling:
    MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
    MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:
    
    
    
    
    # Define all object files.
    OBJ = $(SRC:.c=.o) $(ASRC:.S=.o) 
    
    # Define all listing files.
    LST = $(ASRC:.S=.lst) $(SRC:.c=.lst)
    
    
    # Compiler flags to generate dependency files.
    GENDEPFLAGS = -Wp,-M,-MP,-MT,$(*F).o,-MF,.dep/$(@F).d
    
    
    # Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
    # Add target processor to flags.
    ALL_CFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) $(GENDEPFLAGS)
    ALL_ASFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp $(ASFLAGS)
    
    
    
    
    
    # Default target.
    all: begin gccversion sizebefore build sizeafter finished end
    
    build: elf hex eep lss sym
    
    elf: $(TARGET).elf
    hex: $(TARGET).hex
    eep: $(TARGET).eep
    lss: $(TARGET).lss 
    sym: $(TARGET).sym
    
    
    
    # Eye candy.
    # AVR Studio 3.x does not check make's exit code but relies on
    # the following magic strings to be generated by the compile job.
    begin:
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_BEGIN)
    
    finished:
    	@echo $(MSG_ERRORS_NONE)
    
    end:
    	@echo $(MSG_END)
    	@echo
    
    
    # Display size of file.
    HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex
    ELFSIZE = $(SIZE) -A $(TARGET).elf
    SIZEX = avr-size --mcu=$(MCU) $(TARGET).elf
    
    sizebefore:
    	@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi
    
    sizeafter:
    	@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi
    
    
    
    # Display compiler version information.
    gccversion : 
    	@$(CC) --version
    
    
    
    # Program the device.  
    program: $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep
    	$(AVRDUDE) $(AVRDUDE_FLAGS) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM)
    
    
    
    
    # Convert ELF to COFF for use in debugging / simulating in AVR Studio or VMLAB.
    COFFCONVERT=$(OBJCOPY) --debugging \
    --change-section-address .data-0x800000 \
    --change-section-address .bss-0x800000 \
    --change-section-address .noinit-0x800000 \
    --change-section-address .eeprom-0x810000 
    
    
    coff: $(TARGET).elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
    	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-avr $< $(TARGET).cof
    
    
    extcoff: $(TARGET).elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
    	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-ext-avr $< $(TARGET).cof
    
    
    
    # Create final output files (.hex, .eep) from ELF output file.
    %.hex: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
    	$(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) -R .eeprom $< $@
    
    %.eep: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_EEPROM) $@
    	-$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" \
    	--change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O $(FORMAT) $< $@
    
    # Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
    %.lss: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING) $@
    	$(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > $@
    
    # Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
    %.sym: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
    	$(NM) -n $< > $@
    
    
    
    # Link: create ELF output file from object files.
    .SECONDARY : $(TARGET).elf
    .PRECIOUS : $(OBJ)
    %.elf: $(OBJ)
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
    	$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(OBJ) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)
    
    
    # Compile: create object files from C source files.
    %.o : %.c
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
    	$(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@ 
    
    
    # Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
    %.s : %.c
    	$(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@
    
    
    # Assemble: create object files from assembler source files.
    %.o : %.S
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
    	$(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@
    
    
    
    # Target: clean project.
    clean: begin clean_list finished end
    
    clean_list :
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).eep
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).cof
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).a90
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lnk
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
    	$(REMOVE) $(OBJ)
    	$(REMOVE) $(LST)
    	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
    	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
    	$(REMOVE) .dep/*
    
    
    
    # Include the dependency files.
    -include $(shell mkdir .dep 2>/dev/null) $(wildcard .dep/*)
    
    
    # Listing of phony targets.
    .PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion \
    build elf hex eep lss sym coff extcoff \
    clean clean_list program
    Haben ihr da eine Idee?

    MfG
    Martin Krellmann

  2. #2
    Gast

    noch was...

    Ich habs mal auf Win98 probiert und da tritt der selbe fehler auf... immer wenn ich Lib-Verzeichnisse (-L$(LIBDIRS)) zu den LDFLAGS hinzufüge.
    Wenn die aber nich da sind, dann meint er, dass Funktionen auf unbekannte Referenzen verweisen.

    Hiiiiilllllfffffeeee....


    MfG
    Martin

  3. #3
    Erfahrener Benutzer Robotik Einstein
    Registriert seit
    29.01.2004
    Beiträge
    2.441
    Ich habe leider keine Ahnung von WinAVR. Aber bist du sicher, dass die Slashes in deinen Pfadangaben richtig sind?
    #Additional libraries.
    LIBDIR = C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avr/lib C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/lib C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avrlib
    Windows steht bei Pfadangaben eigentlich mehr auf auf Backslashes.

  4. #4
    Gast

    hm...

    Muss ich heute nachmittag noch mal bewusst versuchen...

    Normalerweise ist dem das aber egal (denke ich)... und es waren in dem Template von MFile (damit hatte ich das makefile erstellt) auch "normale" slashes verwendet...

  5. #5
    Gast
    Backslash oder Slash... das macht keinen Unterschied...

    Ich vermute mal vielmehr, dass es was damit zu tun hat wie ich die DIRLIB variable (libraries) in die LDFLAGS einbinde:

    auszug:
    # Define directories, if needed.
    DIRAVR = C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR
    DIRAVRBIN = $(DIRAVR)/bin
    DIRAVRUTILS = $(DIRAVR)/utils/bin
    DIRINC = .
    DIRLIB = -L$(DIRAVR)/avrlib -L$(DIRAVR)/lib -L$(DIRAVR)/avr/lib

    # Linker flags.
    # -Wl,...: tell GCC to pass this to linker.
    # -Map: create map file
    # --cref: add cross reference to map file
    LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
    LDFLAGS += $(EXTMEMOPTS)
    LDFLAGS += $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)
    LDFLAGS += $(DIRLIB)
    -> Wenn ichs so mache, dann kommt der Fheler "undefined reference to `[function]' "

    Und so:
    DIRAVR = C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR
    DIRAVRBIN = $(DIRAVR)/bin
    DIRAVRUTILS = $(DIRAVR)/utils/bin
    DIRINC = .
    DIRLIB = $(DIRAVR)/avrlib $(DIRAVR)/lib $(DIRAVR)/avr/lib

    # Linker flags.
    # -Wl,...: tell GCC to pass this to linker.
    # -Map: create map file
    # --cref: add cross reference to map file
    LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
    LDFLAGS += $(EXTMEMOPTS)
    LDFLAGS += $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)
    LDFLAGS += $(DIRLIB)
    bekomme ich: "cannot open "path" permission denied"

    die LDFLAGS werden anschließend nochmal verwendet:
    # Link: create ELF output file from object files.
    .SECONDARY : $(TARGET).elf
    .PRECIOUS : $(OBJ)
    %.elf: $(OBJ)
    @echo
    @echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
    $(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(OBJ) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)
    Ich hoffe hier ist jemand, der sich mit makefiles auskennt... Ich bin absolut ratlos...
    Die Standard WinAVR examples lassen sich ja auch compilieren, nur die avrlib-examples nicht (nachdem ich ein neues makefile mit mfile erstellt habe)

    Hier nochmal das komplette makefile (datei anhängen ging leider nicht):
    Code:
    # Hey Emacs, this is a -*- makefile -*-
    #
    # WinAVR Sample makefile written by Eric B. Weddington, Jörg Wunsch, et al.
    # Released to the Public Domain
    # Please read the make user manual!
    #
    # Additional material for this makefile was submitted by:
    #  Tim Henigan
    #  Peter Fleury
    #  Reiner Patommel
    #  Sander Pool
    #  Frederik Rouleau
    #  Markus Pfaff
    #
    # On command line:
    #
    # make all = Make software.
    #
    # make clean = Clean out built project files.
    #
    # make coff = Convert ELF to AVR COFF (for use with AVR Studio 3.x or VMLAB).
    #
    # make extcoff = Convert ELF to AVR Extended COFF (for use with AVR Studio
    #                4.07 or greater).
    #
    # make program = Download the hex file to the device, using avrdude.  Please
    #                customize the avrdude settings below first!
    #
    # make filename.s = Just compile filename.c into the assembler code only
    #
    # To rebuild project do "make clean" then "make all".
    #
    
    # ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    # Define directories, if needed.
    DIRAVR = C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR
    DIRAVRBIN = $(DIRAVR)/bin
    DIRAVRUTILS = $(DIRAVR)/utils/bin
    DIRINC = .
    #DIRLIB = -L$(DIRAVR)/avr/lib
    DIRLIB = -L$(DIRAVR)/avrlib -L$(DIRAVR)/lib -L$(DIRAVR)/avr/lib
    #DIRLIB = -L.
    
    
    # MCU name
    MCU = atmega16
    
    # Output format. (can be srec, ihex, binary)
    FORMAT = binary
    
    # Target file name (without extension).
    TARGET = glcdtest
    
    
    # List C source files here. (C dependencies are automatically generated.)
    SRC = $(TARGET).c  C:/Entwicklungsumgebung/DevSoftware/SDKs/WinAVR/avrlib/examples/glcd/glcdtest.c
    
    
    # List Assembler source files here.
    # Make them always end in a capital .S.  Files ending in a lowercase .s
    # will not be considered source files but generated files (assembler
    # output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make clean"!
    # Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the same,
    # it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and GCC itself does
    # care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.
    ASRC = 
    
    
    
    # Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s]. 
    # 0 = turn off optimization. s = optimize for size.
    # (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc FAQ.)
    OPT = s
    
    
    # List any extra directories to look for include files here.
    #     Each directory must be seperated by a space.
    EXTRAINCDIRS = $(DIRAVR)/avrlib $(DIRAVR)/avr/include
    
    
    # Compiler flag to set the C Standard level.
    # c89   - "ANSI" C
    # gnu89 - c89 plus GCC extensions
    # c99   - ISO C99 standard (not yet fully implemented)
    # gnu99 - c99 plus GCC extensions
    CSTANDARD = -std=gnu99
    
    # Place -D or -U options here
    CDEFS =
    
    # Place -I options here
    CINCS =
    
    
    # Compiler flags.
    #  -g:           generate debugging information
    #  -O*:          optimization level
    #  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
    #  -Wall...:     warning level
    #  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
    #    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
    CFLAGS = -g
    CFLAGS += $(CDEFS) $(CINCS)
    CFLAGS += -O$(OPT)
    CFLAGS += -funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -fpack-struct -fshort-enums
    CFLAGS += -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes
    CFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.c=.lst)
    CFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
    CFLAGS += $(CSTANDARD)
    
    
    
    # Assembler flags.
    #  -Wa,...:   tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
    #  -ahlms:    create listing
    #  -gstabs:   have the assembler create line number information; note that
    #             for use in COFF files, additional information about filenames
    #             and function names needs to be present in the assembler source
    #             files -- see avr-libc docs [FIXME: not yet described there]
    ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),-gstabs 
    
    
    
    #Additional libraries.
    
    # Minimalistic printf version
    PRINTF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_min
    
    # Floating point printf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
    PRINTF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfprintf -lprintf_flt
    
    PRINTF_LIB = 
    
    # Minimalistic scanf version
    SCANF_LIB_MIN = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_min
    
    # Floating point + %[ scanf version (requires MATH_LIB = -lm below)
    SCANF_LIB_FLOAT = -Wl,-u,vfscanf -lscanf_flt
    
    SCANF_LIB = 
    
    MATH_LIB = -lm
    
    # External memory options
    
    # 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
    # used for variables (.data/.bss) and heap (malloc()).
    #EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,-Tdata=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff
    
    # 64 KB of external RAM, starting after internal RAM (ATmega128!),
    # only used for heap (malloc()).
    #EXTMEMOPTS = -Wl,--defsym=__heap_start=0x801100,--defsym=__heap_end=0x80ffff
    
    EXTMEMOPTS =
    
    # Linker flags.
    #  -Wl,...:     tell GCC to pass this to linker.
    #    -Map:      create map file
    #    --cref:    add cross reference to  map file
    LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
    LDFLAGS += $(EXTMEMOPTS)
    LDFLAGS += $(PRINTF_LIB) $(SCANF_LIB) $(MATH_LIB)
    LDFLAGS += $(DIRLIB)
    
    
    
    # Programming support using avrdude. Settings and variables.
    
    # Programming hardware: alf AVR910 avrisp Bascom bsd 
    # dt006 pavr picoweb pony-stk200 sp12 stk200 stk500
    #
    # Type: avrdude -c ?
    # to get a full listing.
    #
    AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER = stk500
    
    # com1 = serial port. Use lpt1 to connect to parallel port.
    AVRDUDE_PORT = com1    # Programmer connected to serial device
    
    AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH = -U flash:w:$(TARGET).hex
    #AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM = -U eeprom:w:$(TARGET).eep
    
    
    # Uncomment the following if you want avrdude's erase cycle counter.
    # Note that this counter needs to be initialized first using -Yn,
    # see avrdude manual.
    #AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER = -y
    
    # Uncomment the following if you do /not/ wish a verification to be
    # performed after programming the device.
    #AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY = -V
    
    # Increase verbosity level.  Please use this when submitting bug
    # reports about avrdude. See <http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/avrdude> 
    # to submit bug reports.
    #AVRDUDE_VERBOSE = -v -v
    
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS = -p $(MCU) -P $(AVRDUDE_PORT) -c $(AVRDUDE_PROGRAMMER)
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_NO_VERIFY)
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_VERBOSE)
    AVRDUDE_FLAGS += $(AVRDUDE_ERASE_COUNTER)
    
    
    
    # Define programs and commands.
    SHELL = sh
    CC = avr-gcc
    OBJCOPY = avr-objcopy
    OBJDUMP = avr-objdump
    SIZE = avr-size
    NM = avr-nm
    AVRDUDE = avrdude
    REMOVE = rm -f
    COPY = cp
    
    
    
    
    # Define Messages
    # English
    MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
    MSG_BEGIN = -------- begin --------
    MSG_END = --------  end  --------
    MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before: 
    MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
    MSG_COFF = Converting to AVR COFF:
    MSG_EXTENDED_COFF = Converting to AVR Extended COFF:
    MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
    MSG_EEPROM = Creating load file for EEPROM:
    MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
    MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
    MSG_LINKING = Linking:
    MSG_COMPILING = Compiling:
    MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
    MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:
    
    
    
    
    # Define all object files.
    OBJ = $(SRC:.c=.o) $(ASRC:.S=.o) 
    
    # Define all listing files.
    LST = $(ASRC:.S=.lst) $(SRC:.c=.lst)
    
    
    # Compiler flags to generate dependency files.
    GENDEPFLAGS = -Wp,-M,-MP,-MT,$(*F).o,-MF,.dep/$(@F).d
    
    
    # Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
    # Add target processor to flags.
    ALL_CFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. $(CFLAGS) $(GENDEPFLAGS)
    ALL_ASFLAGS = -mmcu=$(MCU) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp $(ASFLAGS)
    
    
    
    
    
    # Default target.
    all: begin gccversion sizebefore build sizeafter finished end
    
    build: elf hex eep lss sym
    
    elf: $(TARGET).elf
    hex: $(TARGET).hex
    eep: $(TARGET).eep
    lss: $(TARGET).lss 
    sym: $(TARGET).sym
    
    
    
    # Eye candy.
    # AVR Studio 3.x does not check make's exit code but relies on
    # the following magic strings to be generated by the compile job.
    begin:
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_BEGIN)
    
    finished:
    	@echo $(MSG_ERRORS_NONE)
    
    end:
    	@echo $(MSG_END)
    	@echo
    
    
    # Display size of file.
    HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex
    ELFSIZE = $(SIZE) -A $(TARGET).elf
    sizebefore:
    	@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi
    
    sizeafter:
    	@if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER); $(ELFSIZE); echo; fi
    
    
    
    # Display compiler version information.
    gccversion : 
    	@$(CC) --version
    
    
    
    # Program the device.  
    program: $(TARGET).hex $(TARGET).eep
    	$(AVRDUDE) $(AVRDUDE_FLAGS) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_FLASH) $(AVRDUDE_WRITE_EEPROM)
    
    
    
    
    # Convert ELF to COFF for use in debugging / simulating in AVR Studio or VMLAB.
    COFFCONVERT=$(OBJCOPY) --debugging \
    --change-section-address .data-0x800000 \
    --change-section-address .bss-0x800000 \
    --change-section-address .noinit-0x800000 \
    --change-section-address .eeprom-0x810000 
    
    
    coff: $(TARGET).elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
    	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-avr $< $(TARGET).cof
    
    
    extcoff: $(TARGET).elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_COFF) $(TARGET).cof
    	$(COFFCONVERT) -O coff-ext-avr $< $(TARGET).cof
    
    
    
    # Create final output files (.hex, .eep) from ELF output file.
    %.hex: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
    	$(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) -R .eeprom $< $@
    
    %.eep: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_EEPROM) $@
    	-$(OBJCOPY) -j .eeprom --set-section-flags=.eeprom="alloc,load" \
    	--change-section-lma .eeprom=0 -O $(FORMAT) $< $@
    
    # Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
    %.lss: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING) $@
    	$(OBJDUMP) -h -S $< > $@
    
    # Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
    %.sym: %.elf
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
    	$(NM) -n $< > $@
    
    
    
    # Link: create ELF output file from object files.
    .SECONDARY : $(TARGET).elf
    .PRECIOUS : $(OBJ)
    %.elf: $(OBJ)
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
    	$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(OBJ) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)
    
    
    # Compile: create object files from C source files.
    %.o : %.c
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
    	$(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@ 
    
    
    # Compile: create assembler files from C source files.
    %.s : %.c
    	$(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@
    
    
    # Assemble: create object files from assembler source files.
    %.o : %.S
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
    	$(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@
    
    
    
    # Target: clean project.
    clean: begin clean_list finished end
    
    clean_list :
    	@echo
    	@echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).eep
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).cof
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).a90
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lnk
    	$(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
    	$(REMOVE) $(OBJ)
    	$(REMOVE) $(LST)
    	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
    	$(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
    	$(REMOVE) .dep/*
    
    
    
    # Include the dependency files.
    -include $(shell mkdir .dep 2>/dev/null) $(wildcard .dep/*)
    
    
    # Listing of phony targets.
    .PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion \
    build elf hex eep lss sym coff extcoff \
    clean clean_list program

    Danke...
    Martin

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